Mapp Biopharmaceuticals is involved in development of pharmaceuticals for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, focusing on unmet needs in global health and biodefense. As Mapp's products transition to clinical evaluation, licenses are transferred to Mapp's commercialization partner, LeafBio. Flying primarily under the radar, in August 2014 the firm was projected into the headlines over the use of their as yet unapproved treatment - ZMappTM - on two US citizen who had contracted the often fatal Ebola virus. ZMappTM is the result of a collaboration between Mapp Biopharmaceutical, Inc. and LeafBio (San Diego, CA), Defyrus Inc. (Toronto, Canada), the U.S. government and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). ZMappTM is composed of three humanized monoclonal antibodies manufactured in plants, specifically Nicotiana. It is an optimized cocktail combining the best components of MB-°©?003 (Mapp) and ZMAb (Defyrus/PHAC). ZMappTM was first identified as a drug candidate in January 2014 and has not yet been evaluated for safety in humans. As such, very little of the drug is currently available. Any decision to use an experimental drug in a patient would be a decision made by the treating physician under the regulatory guidelines of the FDA. Mapp and its partners are cooperating with appropriate government agencies to increase production as quickly as possible. A more recent MAPP achievment has been the award in Summer 2019 of an advanced R&D contract for $16.5 million with options for an additional $30.0 million by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to advance MBP091 though the completion of a Phase 1 clinical trial - work much needed to develop therapeutics for infected individuals and for the Strategic National Stockpile.