Metrology is a multi-billion dollar industry that is an indispensable part of science and manufacturing. A variety of techniques including interferometric microscopes, scanning electron microscopes (SEM), X-ray, and atomic force microscopes (AFM) are used in X- ray mirror manufacturing. The performance of any tool directly depends on the ability to characterize and tune it. Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is the most comprehensive characteristic of any tool; however, it is not widely used because of its complex implementation and because of the lack of availability of test samples with the required spatial frequencies. The objective of this proposal is to develop and commercialize a comprehensive method, test samples, and software for the evaluation and calibration of metrological instrumentation used in the manufacturing of X-ray optical elements as well as in many other areas of metrology and nanosciences. The technique, which is based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) arrays, was developed and patented by LBNL scientists. The method is based on a measurement of the spatial frequency response of the instrument from a specially designed test sample. The sample involves a pseudo-random pattern; the instrument will measure the sample and produce data that distorts the MTF of the known sample, adding signature of the instrument. Nanofabrication technology will be used for fabrication of test samples. This will assure availability of artifacts, especially for high-frequency measurements. A commercial-quality software will be developed to automate the calibration process in order to improve reliability, exclude the & quot;human factor, & quot; and simplify and speed up the calibration. This technique based on the BPR is extremely sensitive, and it is universal to characterize almost any type of metrological equipment. The technology fits perfectly into aBeam & apos;s existing line of products, which are used mostly for metrology and nanofabrication.